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ISSUE 25 | Fall 2015

Overlapping Images. Between Cinema and Photography

Edited by Luisella Farinotti, Barbara Grespi and Barbara Le Maître

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For a long time, comparisons of cinema and photography have been predominantly a question of contrast, both of their forms and their ways of seeing. This special issue of Cinéma&Cie reverses the perspective, by addressing some of the fundamental spaces of convergence and coexistence between the two languages. While they have always been somewhat present in the history of the two arts (not only in chronophotography, but also astronomic photography, photographic series, and still photography), the photocinematic forms have become particularly relevant in the archaeology of post-media culture that has characterised much scholarship lately. What tools should we employ to study these confluences today? Is it possible to perceive overlapping images also in strictly cinematic or photographic works? From this perspective, the special issue deals with borderline authors, such as Jeff Wall; post-filmic aesthetics, such as the cinematic tableau vivant and innovative examples of contemporary, experimental audiovisual production.


CONTENTS / TABLE DES MATIÈRES | ABSTRACTS | CONTRIBUTORS / COLLABORATEURS

Overlapping Images. Between Cinema and Photography

Luisella Farinotti, Barbara Grespi and Barbara Le Maître, Suspended Evidence: Rethinking the Photographic

Francesco Giarrusso, From Stillness (in)to Motion through Astronomical Images: The Cases of Jules Janssen’s Photographic Revolver and Josep Comas i Solà’s Spectrographic Cinematography

Marc-Emmanuel Mélon, Les Formes cinématographiques du discours photographique. Le cas de Men at Work, de Lewis Hineœ

Francesca Scotto Lavina, Still-moving Engrams: The Ecstasy of Bodily Gestures in Chronophotography and its Contemporary Reproductions

Elena Marcheschi, Deterritorialized Images. Future Visions, Past Memories

Barbara Le Maître, Jeff WallBeyond the Borders of the Medium. Photography, History Painting and the Cinema of the Living-dead

Ágnes Pethő, The Image, Alone: Photography, Painting and the Tableau Aesthetic in Post-Cinema

NEW STUDIES

Micaela Latini, The Vision of the End. Anders on the TV series Holocaust

PROJECTS & ABSTRACTS

REVIEWS / COMPTES-RENDUS


ABSTRACTS |  CONTRIBUTORS / COLLABORATEURS | CONTENTS / TABLE DES MATIÈRES

Overlapping Images. Between Cinema and Photography

Luisella Farinotti, Barbara Grespi and Barbara Le Maître, Suspended Evidence: Rethinking the Photographic

Though the post-media condition erases their specificity, cinema and photography, in their mutual dynamic, have reappeared overwhelmingly in contemporary media practices and theoretical reflection, specifically since a renewed interpretation of the still-moving dialectic has become a crucial dimension of the contemporary image. Therefore exchanges, overlaps and bonds between the filmic and the photographic categorize the prevailing paradigm not only in the analysis of the new forms of the image, but also in reinterpreting the history of the two media and of their earliest and perpetual intersection. The historical reconsideration of the connection between cinema and photography demands clarity in some grey areas that so far have been neglected, such as film stills, analyzed in the following essay. They constitute a complex dispositif of exchange between cinema and photography, and not by chance are central to much innovative research on the photographic. Historical analysis and visual experimentation have progressed in parallel, both interested in a ‘return to the past’: to the origin of our gaze, but also to a different relationship with images. Hence, having first identified the necessity to adopt a perspective on media relations based on confluence instead of influence, the essay deals with two symptomatic forms of confluence between cinema and photography. First, a form of ‘compressed cinema’ that gives up on time and on the flow of the images and instead is condensed within a single photograph (like in Gregory Crewdson’s works); second, a sort of suspended photography, that takes on the incompleteness, the dynamism and the temporality of cinema, thus transcending its boundaries (as in Linda Fregni Nagler’s Pour commander à l’aire).

Francesco Giarrusso, From Stillness (in)to Motion through Astronomical Images: The Cases of Jules Janssen’s Photographic Revolver and Josep Comas i Solà’s Spectrographic Cinematography

Through the analysis of two case studies – namely, images of Venus’s transit across the Sun, captured in 1874 by Pierre J.C. Janssen’s photographic revolver, and the advent of spectro-cinematography performed for the first time by Josep Comas i Solà during the Solar eclipse of 1912 – the present article seeks to claim and substantiate the strict correlation between photography and cinematic device, recalling what Jean Epstein has defined as ‘the lens philosophy’. In fact, both the photographic and cinematic apparatuses, along with the microscope and the telescope, not only surpass the physiological flaws of the human eye, allowing us to see the un-observable, but moreover contribute to the elaboration and development of new philosophical-scientific systems about the Universe, via their images of celestial bodies. I demonstrate therefore how both of the cases under analysis delimit a specific phase of the history of astronomical images. Changes in the latter relate to the production technique and its underlying representation models, thus corroborating the role played by the astronomical image in the permanent dissolution, attenuation, and redefinition of the frontier between photography and film, instantaneity and duration, and the discrete and the continuous.

Marc-Emmanuel Mélon, Les Formes cinématographiques du discours photographique. Le cas de Men at Work, de Lewis Hineœ

Lewis W. Hine’s series on the construction of the Empire State Building, published in 1932 in Men at work – the photographer’s only book, offers a pioneering form of photographic enunciation within the history of the medium that is inspired by the cinematographic language. Compared with the evolution of photographic illustrated magazines during the twenties, and the use of montage by the designer Stefan Lorant, Hine’s series appears to be the first to have employed cinematographic continuity to express an allegorical idea: the links between the pictures are like the links between the men at work. A brief detour via Eisenstein’s theory of montage helps understand that just as each picture is a part of the whole series, each of the men is a part of the working class who built the highest skyscraper in the world.

Francesca Scotto Lavina, Still-moving Engrams: The Ecstasy of Bodily Gestures in Chronophotography and its Contemporary Reproductions

In the 1880s chronophotograpic still images dissected the otherwise indistinguishable stages of bodily movement, revealing both the discontinuities between still images that are hidden in cinematic images, and the details of gestures that are imperceptible to the human eye. According recent film theory, chronophotography reveals that aesthetic fruition is not based on continuity alone, but also on instantaneity, discontinuities of movement and the dichotomy of immobility and motion. The essay argues that chronophotography can express the dynamis of Warburg’s engrams and Eisenstein’s expressive movement, as well as its organic nature and the qualitative changes it enacts on the body. In Eisenstein’s opinion, the changes that occur in the work of art trigger the spectator’s imitative process, which in turn is responsible for ecstatic flow. The article considers Choros (Langan and Maher, 2011) and the media art project White Horse Hills (Wood, 2002), both of which render chronophotographic, engram-like images of movement through digital techniques. In their analysis, I claim not only that they both emphasize their chronophotographic effect, but moreover that they strengthen the dynamis of gesture, thus demonstrating its importance in aesthetic fruition when it is in line with the laws of nature.

Elena Marcheschi, Deterritorialized Images. Future Visions, Past Memories

From the very start, electronic language and video technologies have provided a free territory for expanding and reformulating multiple artistic itineraries, as well as a point of confluence for the most creative dialogue between different media. Raymond Bellour’s work has been significant in defining the role that video has played in the media context, describing it as a passeur between systems of old and new images, between the mobile and the immobile. Following the digital turn, it seems that the most obvious legacy of video in today’s digital system lies in the transfer, within the logic of computers, of that vocation for integration and intermediation which has always been acknowledged as its genetic characteristic. The computer becomes itself a passeur between the history of photography, the cinema and the experimental electronic world, increasing the possibility of interweaving influences, both practical and conceptual. The essay describes the work of some contemporary artists (Mittelstäd, Vogel, Klasmer), where the choice of a notably inter-media representation condenses the spirit of the history of photography and moving images, in a parabola that originates in pre-cinema to reach electronic experimentation and go towards the all-comprehensive logic of the metamedium-passeur.

Barbara Le Maître, Jeff Wall, Beyond the Borders of the Medium. Photography, History Painting and the Cinema of the Living-dead

How can a work of art reach beyond the borders of the medium to which it would logically seem to belong? Following a brief reflection upon an important essay by Rosalind Krauss, “Reinventing the Medium”, this contribution focuses specifically on one of Jeff Wall’s works, allowing the author to deal more directly with the issue of the dialogue between different mediums. Through the analysis of Dead Troops Talk, the aim of the article is to demonstrate: first, how the so-called photograph does not exploit the potential of its own medium, but instead applies a compositional strategy borrowed from the pictorial medium; and second, how the same photograph undermines the genre of historical painting (to which it is linked via its compositional strategy) by putting the fictitious – and cinematographic – figure of the zombie at the center of the representation.

Ágnes Pethő, The Image, Alone: Photography, Painting and the Tableau Aesthetic in Post-Cinema

Recent art cinema has produced several experiments in the tableau that conceive entire movies based on its aesthetic. Such films blur the boundaries between cinema and installation art, and consist of a loosely connected string of tableaux which gain a degree of autonomy and therefore cannot be interpreted in the contexts of cinematic narration and dramaturgy. These films are usually categorized as slow movies, and indeed their duration has inspired the majority of their analysis in film theory. Nevertheless, I suggest that we should focus on the similarities between the tableau sequences of slow movies and the installations of moving image tableaux in order to highlight the ways they revitalise the traditional, intermedial figure of the tableau vivant in art, and foreground the single, photographic frame within moving images. Referring to recent reinterpretations of the notion of the transmedial dispositif and to the revisions of the tableau mode in art (and the ideas of Jean-François Chevrier) I propose to contest Raymond Bellour’s idea of the ‘battle of the dispositifs’ and concentrate on aspects of the complex convergences between the traditional visual arts and the new media of moving images that underlies the tableau aesthetic in post-cinema. Taking into account the implosion of the tableau vivant into a more generic tableau style, I examine a set of gestures and actions of folding together photography, painting and cinema that may define the post-cinematic ‘mise en tableau’ (via examples from the films of James Benning, Lav Diaz, Gustav Deutsch, Raúl Perrone, Apichatpong Weerasethakul and Tsai Ming-liang).

NEW STUDIES

Micaela Latini, The Vision of the End. Anders on the TV series Holocaust

PROJECTS & ABSTRACTS

REVIEWS / COMPTES-RENDUS


CONTRIBUTORS / COLLABORATEURS | ABSTRACTS | CONTENTS / TABLE DES MATIÈRES

Luisella Farinotti is Associate Professor in Film Studies at IULM University of Milan, where she teaches Film Theory and Aesthetics of Cinema. Her current research study is on theory and history of the image and memory studies, with particular regard to home movie, found-footage films and self-portrayal practices. She is a member of the scientific committee of the series “Cinergie” (Mimesis) and of the editorial board of reviews: Cinéma & Cie. International Film Studies Journal and Cinergie. Il cinema e le altre arti. She published many essays in journals and miscellaneous books. She supervised and coordinated the research project published in Atlante del cinema italiano. Corpi, paesaggi e figure del contemporaneo (2011, with G. Canova). She has published: Il futuro dietro le spalle. Tempo e storia nel cinema di Edgar Reitz (2005), Il metodo e la passione. Cinema amatoriale e film di famiglia in Italia (2006, with E. Mosconi).

Francesco Giarrusso has a Degree in DAMS (Cinema), Discipline delle Arti, della Musica e dello Spettacolo, from the University of Bologna (2005). In 2013, he was awarded a PhD in Communication Sciences by the Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Since 2013, he is an integrated member of the CFCUL (Center of Philosophy of Science of the University of Lisbon), member of the research group Ciência e Arte (Science and Art), and of SAP – Science-Art-Philosophy Lab with a research project entitled “World images: from the cartographic representation of Earth to the electro-numerical image of the Globe”.

Barbara Grespi is Associate Professor in Cinema Studies at the University of Bergamo, where she coordinates the Research Group on cinema “Balthazar” and is on the scientific board of “Punctum,” an international project devoted to the study of visual culture. She has written particularly on gesture in the cinema and on cinema and photography, and her recent publications include Memoria e Immagini (Mondadori, 2009), Cinema e montaggio (Carocci, 2010), Gus Van Sant (Marsilio, 2011), Fuori quadro (co.eds. with Elio Grazioli and Sara Damiani; Aracne, 2013), Bodies of Stone. Suspended Animations in the Media, Visual Culture and the Arts (co-eds. with Alessandra Violi, Andrea Pinotti and Petro Conte; Amsterdam University Press, forthcoming).

Micaela Latini is Assistant Professor of German Literature at Cassino University, Italy. She has written a monograph on Ernst Bloch (Il Possibile e il marginale, 2005) and, more recently, two books on Thomas Bernhard (La pagina bianca, 2010 and Il museo degli errori, 2011), to be published in German (K&N). She is also co-editor of Dieci anni di estetica tedesca. Una bibliografia ragionata (with A. Campo), of a book on Günther Anders L’uomo e la (sua) fine (with A. Meccariello, 2014) and of Gli intellettuali e la Guerra. Un abbecedario (with G. Guerra, 2016). She has also edited a new edition of The Man without Qualities by Robert Musil (trans. I. Castiglia, 2014), an anthology of E. Bloch’s essays (Ornamenti, 2012) and a new edition of Burning conscience by Günther Anders (L’ultima vittima di Hiroshima, 2016).

Barbara Le Maître is Professor in Film Studies at Paris Ouest Nanterre University. She has published Entre film et photographie. Essai sur l’empreinte (PUV, 2004), Zombie, une fable anthropologique (PUPO, 2015) and co-edited Preserving and Exhibiting Media Art : Challenges and Perspectives (with Julia Noordegraaf, Cosetta Saba and Vinzenz Hediger, AUP, 2013), Cinéma muséum. Le musée d’après le cinéma (with Jennifer Verraes, PUV, 2013) and Tout ce que le ciel permet en cinéma, photographie, peinture et vidéo (with Bruno Nassim Aboudrar, PSN, 2015). Her current research deals with: cinema and museology; the figure of the living dead; the relations between films and fossils.

Elena Marcheschi, PhD in Visual and Performing Arts, is Adjunct Professor in Art and Multimedia at the Università degli Studi di Pisa. She’s the author of Videoestetiche dell’emergenza. L’immagine della crisi nella sperimentazione audiovisiva (2015), Sguardi eccentrici. Il fantastico nelle arti elettroniche (2012) and co-editor of I film in tasca. Videofonino, cinema e televisione (2009, with M. Ambrosini and G. Maina). She has published articles and essays about new media, video art and experimental cinema. Her research also pays particular attention to women’s production and self-media. Curator of videoinstallations exhibitions, she’s also in the staff of INVIDEO – International Exhibition of Video and Cinema Beyond (Milan, Italy).

Marc-Emmanuel Mélon is Professor at the University of Liège, where he teaches history and aesthetics of photography, cinema, video and visual arts in an overall perspective of cultural history of the production of meaning. His current research deals with early photography (in particular its non-artistic uses), the photographic discourse, the aesthetics of deep focus (from trompe l’oeil to 3D), visual allegory, and non-fiction film in Belgium.

Ágnes Pethő is Professor at the Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania in Cluj-Napoca (Romania) where she is currently head of the Department of Film, Photography, and Media as well as the executive editor of the journal Acta Universitatis Sapientiae: Film and Media Studies. She is the author of Cinema and Intermediality. The Passion for the In-Between (2011), the editor of the volumes: Film in the Post-Media Age (2012), The Cinema of Sensations (2015). She has also published several essays about the relationship of painting, photography and film and the aesthetic of the tableau vivant in cinema (e.g. in the 2014 “Winter issue of Screen”, in the volume on Photofilmic Images in Contemporary Art and Visual Culture edited by Alexander Streitberger, Brianne Caitlin Cohen, Leuven University Press, 2015).

Francesca Scotto Lavina is a PhD candidate in “Film and New media Studies” at La Sapienza, University of Rome. Her research addresses spectators’ emotion in film experience through an interdisciplinary approach, because of her background in Biosciences and Media Studies with a focus on cinema. She has published cinema essays in academic journals (Fata Morgana, Bianco e Nero), films and books reviews. She took part in International congresses and workshops, such as 9th NECS congress; she also organized 12th NECS graduate workshop.

ISSUE 24 | Spring 2015

Archives in Human Pain. Circulation, Persistence, Migration

Edited by Alice Cati and Vicente Sánchez-Biosca

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The images of atrocity, either analog or digital, are always the trace of an encounter between the gaze of a photographer or a cameraman and a human being suffering from the painful effects of man-made violence. The archive images resulting from such an encounter raise some inevitable questions: who took them and for what purpose? Is it possible to retrace the process that led to these shots? What do they hide behind what the eye can see? This special issue of Cinéma & Cie will not only focus on the production of such images, but also on their persistence on the synchronic level (in the media: newspapers, magazines, cinema, television, the Internet, museums…) as well as on the diachronic level (across time: mutation, re-editing, inversion…). From propaganda to counter-propaganda, from purposes of memory to artistic aims, the circulation of these images proves that repetition always implies difference.


CONTENTS / TABLE DES MATIÈRES | ABSTRACTS | CONTRIBUTORS / COLLABORATEURS

Archives in Human Pain. Circulation, Persistence, Migration

Alice Cati and Vicente Sánchez-Biosca, Questioning the Images of Atrocity: An Introduction

Barbara Grespi, Lasting Remains: The Anesthetizing Gaze in German Postwar Cinema and Photography

Tobias Ebbrecht-Hartmann, Preserving Memory or Fabricating the Past? How Films Constitute Cinematic Archives of the Holocaust

Maria Teresa Soldani, History and Progress in Buried in Light and Empires of TinThe Archive of Pain in the Oeuvre of Jem Cohen

Luisella Farinotti, “Wir wollen uns mit den Bildern unseres Landes befassen”: Documents, Fetishes, Icons, Relics: the Reconstruction of the German Autumn as an Image

Alice Cati, Private Images in Place of the Beloved Bodies: Relics Against the Politics of Disappearance

Sylvie Rollet, Malgré tout… l’image manque

Vicente Sánchez-Biosca, Perpetrator Images, Perpetrator Artifacts: The Nomad Archives of Tuol Sleng (S-21) 

NEW STUDIES

Ilaria A. De Pascalis, Melodrama, Identity, and Community in Forbrydelsen

Elisa Mandelli, The Museum as a Cinematic SpaceThe Display of Moving Images in History Museums

PROJECTS & ABSTRACTS

REVIEWS / COMPTES-RENDUS


ABSTRACTS |  CONTRIBUTORS / COLLABORATEURS | CONTENTS / TABLE DES MATIÈRES

Archives in Human Pain. Circulation, Persistence, Migration

Alice Cati and Vicente Sánchez-Biosca, Questioning the Images of Atrocity: An Introduction

The images of atrocity, either analog or digital, are always the trace of an encounter between the gaze of a photographer or a cameraman and a human being suffering from the painful effects of man-made violence. The archive images resulting from such an encounter raise some inevitable questions: who took them and for what purpose? Is it possible to retrace the process that led to these shots? What do they hide beyond what the eye can see? Owing to their defective nature their defective nature and the changes they have endured throughout history, these images strongly contribute to shape collective memory by becoming real sites of memory for ethnic or national communities. Therefore, the archive of human pain, encompassing a wide range of public spaces – such as museums, monuments, artworks, memorials, human rights associations and so on – is a reservoir of images to stimulate grief or fuel action for social change. This introduction has two main aims: on the one hand, it investigates the circulation of such images within the visual sphere and their social or political uses; on the other hand, it provides the paths of research and the new findings extensively analysed in the contributions included in this volume.

Barbara Grespi, Lasting Remains: The Anesthetizing Gaze in German Postwar Cinema and Photography

The essay analyzes the traumatic dimension of the images of rubble produced by German cinema and photography in the aftermath of the Second World War. Drawing on Sebald’s reflections on the inability of literature to bear witness to the atrocious experience of the bombings endured by millions of German citizens, this contribution proposes an analysis of the gaze employed in depicting the dramatic condition of the country. In particular, the refusal of the codes of realism and the impulse towards the scenographic portrayal of rubble and ruins, about which scholars largely agree, is here re-read not as evidence for an escape from reality, but as a re-emergence of an ornamental (Kracauer) and anesthetizing (Jünger) visual matrix typical of the aerial point of view and, so, typical of the attacker’s gaze. This resurfacing is testified by two key figures engraved in the landscape of rubble: the skeleton in X-rays and the surface of abstract signs which cross-references the view from above; both strip the flesh from the body/landscape, so that the former is in some way included in the latter. As it coincides not only with the gaze that Germany suffered at the end of the war, but also with that imposed by the Nazis at its beginning, the aerial perspective and the corresponding affectless mode summarizes the specificity of the trauma that Germany underwent, rekindling the conflict of self-representation of the defeated country.

Tobias Ebbrecht-Hartmann, Preserving Memory or Fabricating the Past? How Films Constitute Cinematic Archives of the Holocaust

The article discusses the filmic representation of the Holocaust within the framework of the archive. To what extent adopt films archival techniques and operations or constitute something like ‘cinematic archives’ of the Holocaust? Films can assemble footage from the archive and bring it in a specific order but they can also use it as model for cinematic recreations. Thus, the preservation of visual and non-visual traces in feature films is always transformative and sometimes even distorting. By repeating and circulating ‘images of images’ such films turn visual heritage into a pattern of visual icons and create a stock of usable imagery, which in reverse also leaves other memories and remnants to forgetting. Such technique of repetition is also the basis for the transtextual character of cinematic archives, which also interconnects the storage (the assembling of images) with the register (the references towards earlier cinematic representations). To describe the logic, operations and the impact of cinematic archives of the Holocaust the article reviews such films as Schindler’s List, X-Men, The Pianist and Everything Is Illuminated, and discusses theoretical approaches by Gérard Genette and Jacques Derrida.

Maria Teresa Soldani, History and Progress in Buried in Light and Empires of Tin: The Archive of Pain in the Oeuvre of Jem Cohen

This paper explores the use of archival images in Jem Cohen’s Buried in Light (Central and Eastern Europe in Passing, 1994), and Evening’s Civil Twilight in Empires of Tin (2007-2008) in order to read the development of his reflections on history and memory. The archive is intended “in its concrete manifestation as a collection of audiovisual documents of the past and in its ontological dimension, indicating social and cultural processes of remembering and forgetting” (Noordegraaf, 2011). Strongly influenced by Walter Benjamin, Cohen conceives history not as a chronological line, but as a collection of traces (shots) mapped out by the documentary collagist (filmmaker) that simultaneously speaks about the past and the future in a layered present tense (editing). Mainly as an essay film form, his work is constructed by film fragments of places and people that build an unofficial history with a geographical form. Cohen calls such way of collecting shots “the archive of the feet” (2000). Starting with his first “historical” film/video, This Is a History of New York (The Golden Dark Age of Reason, 1987), the paper analyzes Cohen’s conception of history and progress through the archive of human pain, and in relation to Benjamin’s work.

Luisella Farinotti,“Wir wollen uns mit den Bildern unseres Landes befassen”: Documents, Fetishes, Icons, Relics: the Reconstruction of the German Autumn as an Image

In 18.Oktober 1977 – a cycle of fifteen paintings about the German Autumn and the Baader-Meinhof Gang – Gerhard Richter deals with the trauma of terrorism confronting himself with the crystallized memory of the “crime scene” – specifically, the photos of the dead bodies in Stammheim taken by the police and then published in Stern – that he recomposes, giving us back an experience of blurred, vague, enigmatic vision, therefore forcing us to look in a different way and to search for what is hiding from our sight. The work of Richter is a gesture of rewriting archival images that thus becomes an act of redemption. He opposes to the obscene visibility of the death showed in the photographs of the police – exhibited as proofs of guilt or exploited to satisfy a desire of revenge – the spectral vision of an elementary truth: death, even in the exceptional form of terroristic violence, represents a mysterious and utter horizon that no political gesture can recompose. It is exactly in the death, experienced as a common but unspeakable fate, that Richter finds the humanity of the terrorists, helping us to approach the comprehension of trauma.

Alice Cati, Private Images in Place of the Beloved Bodies: Relics Against the Politics of Disappearance

By analyzing some case studies that develop in different ways the symbolic value of home pictures in terms of restorative burial, the article reflects on the relationship between photography and memory in response to the campaign of political repression and terror occurred in Argentina and Chile from the 1970s to the 1990s. In the last decades, several artists have based their works on the reuse and recontextualisation of private photos, aiming at denouncing the denial of burial. This study will firstly focus on two well-known projects by Argentinean photographers – Marcelo Brodsky’s Buena Memoria (Good Memory, 1997) and Gustavo Germano’s Ausenc’as (Absences, 2006) – which not only highlight the physical absence of the disappeared, but also translate the aesthetics of the family into a depiction of grief and violent past. Secondly, the study moves into the Chilean political arena, by examining some sequences from two documentaries – Silvio Caiozzi’s Fernando ha vuelto (Fernando Returns, 1998) and Patricio Guzmán’s Nostalgia de la luz (Nostalgia for the light, 2012) – it will demonstrate how it is possible to turn the natural assumption of “(private) images are relics” into “relics are (private) images.” By using both social practices of memory and visual artistic operations, it is possible to notice on the one hand an aesthetic need to give real identity back to the victims; on the other hand, a practice of looking, which is specifically marked by postmemorial interpretations, and backshadowing.

Sylvie Rollet, Malgré tout… l’image manque

Facing the genocide perpetrated by the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, The Missing Picture (2013) by Rithy Panh is an intimate meditation on the limits and the power of cinema. The same query drives Công Binh, la longue nuit indochinoise (2013), the documentary essay that Lâm Lê dedicated to worker-soldiers recruited by force in French Indochina to serve as slave labor in France during World War II. Both films make extensive use of so called “archive images” totalitarian propaganda films, photographs, and documents originating from the colonial administration, as well as newsreels, etc. These archives corroborate the fantasy of all powers: that of a mass of faceless bodies. There are only two reverse shots possible for false image of the Khmer Rouge: either the shots made by Rithy Panh – tiny colored clay figurines, representing in miniature the formerly murdered missing bodies; or, in Lâm Lê’s movie, interrupting the sequences of oral testimonies and archive images, the choreographed scenes and a water puppet show which transpose the distress of families who stayed in Vietnam and were left without news for years. What is at stake in the rhapsodic construction of the two films is not the giving of an image where it is missing, but encouraging viewers to encounter a work of imaginary elaboration.

Vicente Sánchez-Biosca, Perpetrator Images, Perpetrator Artifacts: The Nomad Archives of Tuol Sleng (S-21)

This essay examines the production and circulation of the mug shots of the detainees generated by the Khmer Rouge machinery at the centre of torture S-21 (Phnom Penh). When they were taken, these images played a key role in the process of identifying, repressing and killing those considered enemies during the regime of Democratic Kampuchea (1975-1979). Yet, since the collapse of the Khmer Rouge, these photographs have been used to denounce their creators as if the pictures had kept no trace of their original intention and were reversible. With this purpose they have migrated from museums and art galleries to the stage, from illustrated books to the cinema and from the Internet to the criminal court devoted to judge the former KR leaders. I argue that the stories of the phenomena must be told in close relationship: firstly, the deciphering of the archive of mug shots, that is, the discovery of the negatives, the extraction of new prints, and their availability; secondly, the circulation through different public spaces and media; thirdly, the changes in the geopolitical context in such a controversial region for the international equilibrium. Although these three levels do not evolve into a mechanical dependence, they are intricately interrelated and prove the advantages of articulating technological, semiotic, and political uses of an archive that concentrates within it humain pain experienced at the very core of the 20th century.

NEW STUDIES

Ilaria A. De Pascalis, Melodrama, Identity, and Community in Forbrydelsen 

The Danish television series Forbrydelsen is representative of the successful intertwining of local narratives with transnational media within the scenario of contemporary Nordic Noir. This paper considers the series’ stylistic and production values to show how a “medium-concept” narrative, with its hybridization of genres, portrays highly debated social issues and raises a nationwide public discourse on them. The mingling of genres (melodrama and noir, sensational and crime fiction, and so on) produces a complex narrative that revolves around the wounded body and psyche of the female detective. The melodramatic mode of representation generates a dystopic vision of the contemporary world, visually depicting violent clashes between the individual and the agents of power, and the morally ambiguous compromises such clashes create for the nation.

Elisa Mandelli, The Museum as a Cinematic Space: The Display of Moving Images in History Museums 

In the last decades moving images have become a common feature not only in art or film museums, but also in a wide range of institutions devoted to the conservation and transmission of memory. This paper focuses on the role of audio-visuals in the exhibition design of contemporary history and memory museums. Starting from a classification of the different kinds of audio-visuals used in these institutions, I will analyze not only “literal” presence of audio-visuals in exhibitions, but also the ways in which the museum dispositive can incorporate elements of the cinematic dispositive. I will show how, on the one hand, exhibitions can be structured according to cinematic principles such as montage and sequentiality and, on the other hand, how the configuration of museums space can be deeply influenced by the “classic” cinematic dispositive and its components (screen, dark room, projection, sitting spectator).


CONTRIBUTORS / COLLABORATEURS | ABSTRACTS | CONTENTS / TABLE DES MATIÈRES

Alice Cati is Assistant Professor at the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, where she teaches Languages and Semiotics of Media Products and History of Cinema. Her current research study is on audiovisual media and memory studies, with particular regard to home movie, autobiographical documentary, and gendered creativity. In 2009, she wrote a volume called, Pellicole di ricordi. Film di famiglia e memorie private 1926-1942 (Vita & Pensiero). Her most recent works are Immagini della memoria. Teorie e pratiche del ricordo tra testimonianza, genealogia e documentari (Mimesis, 2013) and the special issue “(En)Gendered creativity: Actors Agencies Artifacts” (Comunicazioni sociali, 2014, edited with Mariagrazia Fanchi and Rosanna Maule).

Ilaria A. De Pascalis obtained her PhD in Film Studies in 2009 at the Roma Tre University (Rome, Italy), with a dissertation on Contemporary European Cinema and Globalization. She has published several reviews and essays in international journals and book chapters, especially about European cinema in a transnational perspective, gender studies, and narrative genres in cinema and television series. She has been visiting professor at the University of Cassino and at La Sapienza University of Rome. She also authored the volume Commedia nell’Italia contemporanea (Il Castoro, 2012).

Tobias Ebbrecht-Hartmann is Lecturer of Cinema Studies in the Department of Communication and Journalism and in the DAAD Center for German Studies at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. He holds his PhD from the Free University in Berlin where he also graduated in Film Studies, New German Literature and Political Science. He was Research Assistant at the Filmuniversity Babelsberg Konrad Wolf, and a postdoctoral fellow in the program “Media of History – History of Media” at the Bauhaus University of Weimar and at the International Institute for Holocaust Research Yad Vashem. He is author of Geschichtsbilder im medialen Gedächtnis. Filmische Narrationen des Holocaust (Transcript, 2011).

Luisella Farinotti is Associate Professor in Cinema Studies at Libera Università di Lingue e Comunicazione IULM, where she teaches Film Theory, Aesthetics of Cinema and Aesthetics of Media. As a scholar of Cinema and Visual Arts, she published many essays in journals and miscellaneous books. In the last years, her research is focused on theory and history of the image, the relationship between cinema and memory, found-footage films and self-portrayal practices. She supervised and coordinated the research project published in Atlante del cinema italiano. Corpi, paesaggi e figure del contemporaneo (Garzanti, 2011). She is a member of the Editorial Board of Cinéma & Cie. International Film Studies Journal and, since 2009, she has supervised the column “Cinepolitica” of the journal Comunicazione Politica.

Barbara Grespi is Associate Professor in Cinema Studies at the University of Bergamo, Italy. As a member of the University’s Centre of Visual Arts, she coordinates the Research Group on Cinema “Balthazar” and is on the scientific board of “Punctum,” an international project devoted to the study of images and visual culture. She has written on gesture in the cinema, on cinema and memory and on the intersections between cinema and photography. Her recent publications include Memoria e Immagini (Mondadori, 2009), Cinema e montaggio (Carocci, 2010), Gus Van Sant (Marsilio, 2011), Fuori quadro (Aracne, 2013).

Elisa Mandelli obtained in 2015 a Ph.D. in History of Arts at Ca’ Foscari University/IUAV in Venice, with a dissertation on audio-visual displays in history museums through the 20th century. Her research focuses on the relationships between cinema and visual arts, especially in contemporary exhibition spaces. In 2009 she obtained a Degree in Cinema, television and multimedia production at the University of Bologna. She is member of the editorial board of the journal Cinergie.

Sylvie Rollet is Professor in Film Studies at the University of Poitiers. She is jointly responsible for “Theaters of Memory,” an interuniversity research program on the relationship between moving images and memory. On filmic representation of genocides, she has published Une éthique du regard : le cinéma face à la Catastrophe, d’Alain Resnais à Rithy Panh (Hermann, 2011). She has also recently co-edited two collections of essays, Paysages et Mémoire : cinéma, photographie, dispositifs (Presses Sorbonne Nouvelle, 2014) and Théâtres de la mémoire, mouvement des images (Presses Sorbonne Nouvelle, 2010). Her research is devoted, in particular, to the works of Hungarian, Russian, Caucasian and Balkan filmmakers.

Vicente Sánchez-Biosca is a Professor at the University of Valencia (Spain) and has been the editor of the film journal Archivos de la Filmoteca for 20 years (1992-2012). He has been a visiting professor at a number of universities, such of Université Sorbonne Nouvelle – Paris 3 (for five terms), Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, Montreal, Sao Paulo, New York University, and Havana. Among his latest books are: NO-DO. El tiempo y la memoria (Cátedra, 2000), El pasado es el destino (Cátedra, 2011), both with R.R. Tranche, Cine y guerra civil española (Alianza, 2006), Cine de historia y cine de memoria (Cátedra, 2006), Cine y vanguardias artísticas (Paidós, 2004). He is currently leading a research project on the role of the image in the charisma-building of political leaders in Spain. His other project deals with the construction and circulation of images of atrocity, especially perpetrator images.

Maria Teresa Soldani is a PhD candidate in History of Visual and Performing Arts at Pegaso Project-Tuscany Region (Universities of Firenze, Pisa, and Siena). She graduated summa cum laude from the University of Pisa in Cinema, Music, Theatre, and in Cinema, Theatre, Multimedia Production, defending a thesis on contemporary American cinema and video prepared in Boston and New York. She published the monograph Naked City. Identità, indipendenza e ricerca nel cinema newyorchese (Quaderni di CinemaSud, 2013) and several essays for Segnocinema, Duellanti, Quaderni di CinemaSud, and Invideo’s catalogue. She is a filmmaker, composer and musician living in Turin, Italy.

ISSUE 22-23 | Spring/Fall 2014

Neurofilmology. Audiovisual Studies and the Challenge of Neuroscience

Edited by Adriano D’Aloia and Ruggero Eugeni

Copia di Cover
Over the last two decades, discoveries made in the field of cognitive neuroscience have begun to permeate the humanities and social sciences. In the context of this intersection, Neurofilmology is a research program that arises at the encounter between two models of viewer: the viewer-as-mind (deriving from a cognitive/analytical approach) and the viewer-as-body (typical of the phenomenological/continental approach). Accordingly, Neurofilmology focuses on the viewer-as-organism, by investigating with both empirical and speculative epistemological tools the subject of audiovisual experience, postulated as embodied, embedded, enacted, extended, emerging, affective, and relational.

This special issue of Cinéma & Cie focuses on major conceptual and epistemological arguments arising from the dialogue between audiovisual studies and neurosciences developed over the last twenty years. In fact, the contributors share the conviction that such a dialogue can be fruitful if and only if it is conducted within a common and consistent framework, including both epistemological and conceptual aspects. Such a framework should allow each of the research programs to contribute to a shared understanding of that particular and complex phenomenon that is the film and audiovisual media viewing experience.


CONTENTS / TABLE DES MATIÈRES | ABSTRACTS | CONTRIBUTORS / COLLABORATEURS

Neurofilmology. Audiovisual Studies and the Challenge of Neuroscience

Adriano D’Aloia and Ruggero Eugeni, Neurofilmology: An Introduction 

Temenuga Trifonova, Neuroaesthetics and Neurocinematics: Reading the Brain/Film through the Film/Brain 

Maria Poulaki, Neurocinematics and the Discourse of Control: Towards a Critical Neurofilmology 

Patricia Pisters, Dexter’s Plastic Brain: Mentalizing and Mirroring in Cinematic Empathy 

Enrico Carocci, First-Person Emotions: Affective Neuroscience and the Spectator’s Self 

Maarten Coëgnarts and Peter Kravanja, The Sensory-Motor Grounding of Abstract Concepts in Two Films by Stanley Kubrick 

Pia Tikka and Mauri Kaipainen, Phenomenological Considerations on Time Consciousness under Neurocinematic Search Light 

Vittorio Gallese and Michele Guerra, The Feeling of Motion: Camera Movements and Motor Cognition 

NEW STUDIES

Olivier Asselin, Cinéma d’exposition 2.0: Mixed-Reality Games in and around the Museum 

Livia Giunti, L’analyse du film a l’ère numérique. Annotation, geste analytique et lecture active 

Christian Gosvig Olesen, Panoramic Visions of the Archive in EYE’s Panorama: A Case Study in Digital Film Historiography 

Francesco Pitassio, Distant Voices, Still Cinema? Around the Movies

PROJECTS & ABSTRACTS

REVIEWS / COMPTES-RENDUS


ABSTRACTS |  CONTRIBUTORS / COLLABORATEURS | CONTENTS / TABLE DES MATIÈRES

Neurofilmology. Audiovisual Studies and the Challenge of Neuroscience

Adriano D’Aloia and Ruggero EugeniNeurofilmology: An Introduction 

Over the last two decades, discoveries made in the field of cognitive neuroscience have begun to permeate the humanities and social sciences. In the context of this intersection, Neurofilmology is a research program that arises at the encounter between two models of viewer: the viewer-as-mind (deriving from a cognitive/analytical approach), and the viewer-as-body (typical of the phenomenological/continental approach). Accordingly, Neurofilmology focuses on the viewer-as-organism, by investigating with both empirical and speculative epistemological tools the subject of audiovisual experience, postulated as embodied, embedded, enacted, extended, emerging, affective and relational. This introduction is divided into three parts. Firstly, it compares the classic filmological approach of the 1940s-50s with contemporary audiovisual media studies devoted to the analysis of viewer experience. Secondly, it outlines an epistemological and conceptual framework for the research: in this sense, it illustrates the theoretical model of the viewer-as-organism, and sketches a general outline of audiovisual experience that allows researchers to rearrange different kinds of research within a unitary framework. Thirdly, it briefly summarizes the contributions to the special issue.

Temenuga TrifonovaNeuroaesthetics and Neurocinematics: Reading the Brain/Film through the Film/Brain 

This article offers a critique of neuroaesthetics and neurocinematics. Neuroscientific research aims at a quantitative assessment of the impact of different art and film styles on viewers’ brains through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and inter-subject correlation (ISC) analysis. Advocates of neurocinematics, in particular, believe the turn to neuroscience will help film theory go beyond ideological, linguistic and psychoanalytic models, i.e. subject-positioning theories (SLAB theory: Saussure, Lacan, Althusser, Barthes), which draw a pessimistic picture of the subject as “split” and “positioned,” “trapped” both internally (by unconscious forces) and externally (by various ideological discourses, including the film apparatus itself). I argue that by positing a looping effect between the brain and the screen, neurocinematics shows itself to be an extension of apparatus theory, although one rooted in neuroscience rather than in SLAB theory. Furthermore, although “the New Materialism” – of which neuroaesthetics and neurocinematics are two representative instances – positions itself as “post-human” in its commitment to granting the non-human agency and vitality and to acknowledging its affective, ethical and political potential, it covertly carries on some of the assumptions and beliefs fundamental to post-structuralism even as it claims to “de-anthropomorphize” philosophy, aesthetics, and film theory.

Maria PoulakiNeurocinematics and the Discourse of Control: Towards a Critical Neurofilmology 

This article offers a close reading and a critique of Hasson et al.’s Neurocinematics, focusing on its treatment of the notion of control, meaning a predictable neural and cognitive activation triggered by film stimuli. In the first part of the article I suggest that the use of control in neurocinematics on the one hand relies on a similarly problematic – but still more nuanced – use of the notion in cognitive film theory, and on the other hand reflects a unidirectional model of communication which brackets out noisy cases that diverge from predictable behavior. In the second part, I argue that these “noisy” cases are exactly the ones that pertain the most to a complex and dynamic view of brain activity and film-mind communication. The dialogue between film studies and neuroscience can become more complex too, escaping from a problematic definition of film effectiveness with regards to predictable viewer reactions.

Patricia PistersDexter’s Plastic Brain: Mentalizing and Mirroring in Cinematic Empathy 

This essay revisits the question of empathy in film theory by looking at recent neuroscientific findings on affect, emotion and empathy. In film theory there is a classic division between cognitive approaches toward emotional engagement with characters, based on mentalizing or projecting oneself into the situation of another, and phenomenological approaches, based on a more direct embodied experience of mirroring emotional states of characters on screen. Debates in cognitive and affective neuroscience seem to reconfirm these two dominant views on cinematographic engagement: social and cognitive neuroscience demonstrates how we imagine the experience of others in activating the prefrontal and lateral regions of the cortex in projecting a “Theory of Mind.” Affective neuroscientist have demonstrated that the activation of mirror neurons in different parts of the brain, such as the anterior insula, and middle anterior cingulate, effectuate an immediate embodied emotion. Both in film theory and in neuroscientific debates, these two views are often opposed and presented as mutually exclusive. This article elaborates the emerging view that both forms of emotional simulation have their own validity and work together in a dynamic network with varying degrees of dominance according to the type of dramatic situation. The television series Dexter will be considered as a “neuro-image,” an extended and new form of contemporary cinema and will serve as a partner in dialogue in the development of the arguments.

Enrico CarocciFirst-Person Emotions: Affective Neuroscience and the Spectator’s Self 

The investigation of viewers’ affective experience is one of the most complex and stimulating tasks for film scholars, and it has recently been addressed by analytic and continental strands of film theory. As neuroscience is well equipped to offer insights into cinematic emotional experience, a stimulating dialogue between film studies and neuroscience has been engaged. The present article proposes that an affective neuroscience approach may constitute a valuable framework for empirical investigations of the qualities of cinematic emotional experience. In particular, affective neuroscience provides important theoretical insights and empirical evidence for the study of the subjective dimension of emotional experience from a naturalistic point of view. Current psychocinematic research aims to investigate film experience by focusing on the connections between brain processes and mental events. The agenda of the psychocinematic theorists may be expanded by integrating third-person observations of neural activities with first-person methods that take into account the experience of mental phenomena. In this framework, brain studies on the experiential self are relevant for the investigation of the subjective character of the emotional experience of film.

Maarten Coëgnarts and Peter KravanjaThe Sensory-Motor Grounding of Abstract Concepts in Two Films by Stanley Kubrick 

This article provides an embodied account of conceptual meaning in film. More specifically, it claims that the sensory-motor system plays a constitutive role in the cinematic characterisation of abstract concepts. Firstly, we briefly discuss the standard disembodied view of first-generation cognitive science according to which the mental representations of concepts are primarily symbolic and abstract. Secondly, we argue against this view by discussing an embodied theory of concepts based on recent neuroscientific evidence and results from cognitive linguistics. Lastly, we consider the implications of the latter for the study of visual representations of abstract conceptual meaning in film. Using Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) and Eyes Wide Shut (1999) as examples, we make the case that sensory-motor structures play a crucial role in the representation of abstract concepts in cinema.

Pia Tikka and Mauri KaipainenPhenomenological Considerations on Time Consciousness under Neurocinematic Search Light 

Film narratives are intrinsically time-dependent designs. This article proposes a model of narrative nowness, based on Husserl’s concepts of retention and protention on one hand, and Francisco Varela’s neurophenomenological exploration of time consciousness on the other, relating this further to narrative experience and its neural epiphenomena. Only recently has brain research been equipped with the possibility of dealing with temporal frames relevant for time consciousness in the scope of whole narratives. The study of cinema using neuroscientific methods and insights is referred to as neurocinematics. We promote neurocinematics as a complementary method of traditional film research, rather than an approach of brain sciences in general. Neurocinematic methods may provide film studies with new tools for re-evaluating established filmmaking conventions and developing new ways to study, for instance, the film viewer’s experience and related aspects of time consciousness.

Vittorio Gallese and Michele GuerraThe Feeling of Motion: Camera Movements and Motor Cognition 

Camera movements are considered a key element for the intersubjective relation between viewer and screen; nonetheless, their concrete effect on spectators’ experience still lacks the attention it deserves. This paper promotes an embodied approach to the study of camera movements, aiming to better understand the role of motor cognition during the film experience by analyzing the effects of camera movements on viewers’ motor cortex activation. We present an empirical high-density EEG neuroscientific study on camera movements, investigating viewers’ brain motor responses to different techniques like zooming, and the use of a dolly and steadicam. This is triggered by the idea that each movement implies a particular form of physical relation between the audience and the movie. Indeed the experiment showed that the Steadicam determined the strongest activation in viewers’ motor cortex, providing first empirical ground to the notion of the capacity of the camera to simulate the virtual presence of the viewer inside the movie. This study shows how cognitive neuroscience can contribute to a better understanding of film style and techniques. Finally, this research demonstrates how film technique can be useful to cognitive neuroscience, by enabling the simulation of observers’ movements and, in so doing, allowing a novel approach to the study of action-perception links.

NEW STUDIES

Olivier Asselin, Cinéma d’exposition 2.0: Mixed-Reality Games in and around the Museum 

The museum has always been open to virtuality, to mimesis, since the objects it collects are often images. But with the competition from modern spectacles, the museum was quickly confronted with a broader virtuality, that of immersion, which places the viewer not in front of the image, but in the image. Obviously, the immersive aesthetic is not ideally suited to the museum’s education, cultural and cultural mandate. The long and complex history of the relationship between the museum and cinema – which culminated in the “cinéma d’exposition” – clearly demonstrates this. The museum’s recent interest in mixed-reality games, which echoes the use of the Internet and video games by mass culture, has renewed this tension. We will test these hypotheses in examining Uncle Roy All Around You (2003), an exemplary game involving street-players and online players collaborating in the search for a mysterious missing person, which was designed by Blast Theory and which premiered at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in London

Livia GiuntiL’analyse du film a l’ère numérique. Annotation, geste analytique et lecture active 

In 1990 Raymond Bellour defined the practice of film analysis as “an art without future” because of the intrinsically different language it used in relation to its object; specifically, he was referencing oral communication (seminars and teaching classes) and creation through visual arts as the only specific spaces left for film analysis. His idea was to overcome critical and theoretical writing in favour of an action on film. What is the relevance of these reflexions in the new media landscape? By envisioning a dialogue between new and old tools, one can reflect on the way digital devices are shaping emerging practices. If the viewer is becoming an actor, then perhaps the researcher is able to become an editor who – by deconstructing the film – can also produce new audio-visual and graphic material. Computer-assisted analysis involves a range of different tools, from statistics to annotation to presentation, and each tool has practical as well as methodological implications. In this article, I examine the conception, application, and potential of four such computer programmes from the perspective of the history of cinema and film analysis. I also hypothesize that active reading tools such as Advene, while helping to promote new practices, may also encourage new approaches. I argue that the computer amounts to a real assistance tool for the practice of analysis. Our desire to deconstruct and analyse films is today more alive than ever, and digital tools can help us not only to “grasp” the film, but also to grasp its impact on us, as well as the path to our comprehension of it.

Christian Gosvig OlesenPanoramic Visions of the Archive in EYE’s Panorama: A Case Study in Digital Film Historiography 

Recent years attest to a significant change in the representational practices of film historiography. As a consequence of digitization, visual display formats occupy a more prominent role in scholarly and museum practices as means for contemplating the historicity of archival film. This development prompts a discussion of how we might appreciate digital formats as “visual secondary sources” which reproduce and recast historical tropes. To address this discussion the article proposes a combination of institutional and medium specific analysis as a framework for analysing this transition’s consequences. The permanent Panorama (2012) installation at EYE Film Institute Netherlands – a multiple-screen installation which offers a panoramic vision of film history using video excerpts from EYE’s digital collection – constitutes the article’s core example. The article analyses how the installation’s arrangement as a panorama situates the excerpts within two different film histories. First, the analysis attends to how the installation’s taxonomy suggests a connection to former deputy director Eric de Kuyper’s philosophy of film history and emphasis on cinema’s intermediality. Second, it considers the installation in relation to classic, cinephile conceptions of panoramic vision. Conclusively the article provides some brief remarks on how the analysis’ findings might help us further our discussion of visual display formats as visual secondary sources.

Francesco PitassioDistant Voices, Still Cinema? Around the Movies

The contribution deals with the contemporary production of neorealist films and photo-romances, a kind of illustrated magazine deploying sentimental narratives through drawings, or mostly stills. Both products were genuinely Italian and marked the country’s post-war culture. Whereas the first was advocated as highbrow art and the most remarkable expression of the nation in times of hardship, the latter has been disregarded as cheap popular culture; just in recent times it received the attention that a mass phenomenon deserves. What has been overlooked or only briefly discussed are shared areas between the two. The article tackles three issues: how neorealism partook in and merged into post-war visual culture, to the point that some thresholds and boundaries between highbrow, politically conscious and aesthetically experimental films and formulaic cultural products are hard to detect; the role of intertextuality in this process; and what happened in the transformation that occurred along the passage from the screen to the magazine, by comparing the function narratives had in novelization and in films.


CONTRIBUTORS / COLLABORATEURS | ABSTRACTS | CONTENTS / TABLE DES MATIÈRES

Olivier Asselin is a Professor in the Department of Art History and Film Studies at the Université de Montréal, where he teaches contemporary art and media arts. He is co-editor of Precarious Visualities: New Perspectives on Identification in Contemporary Art and Visual Culture (2008), L’Ère électrique / The Electric Age (2011) and Menlo Park. Trois machines uchroniques (2014). He has directed several films, including La Liberté d’une statue (2010) and Un capitalisme sentimental (2008). He participates in two research groups: S.A.S.S. (on the spatialization of knowledge) and Mediatopias (on locative technologies in media arts).

Enrico Carocci, PhD, is Assistant Professor in the Department of Philosophy, Media and Performing Arts at the Università degli Studi Roma Tre. His research and publication interests include emotion in film theory and trends in contemporary international cinema. He is author of the books Tormenti ed estasi. “Strade perdute” di David Lynch (2007) and Attraverso le immagini. Tre saggi sull’emozione cinematografica (2012). He co-edited the anthology Il Cinema e le emozioni. Estetica, espressione, esperienza (2012).

Maarten Coëgnarts holds an MA in Film Studies and Visual Culture and an MA in Sociology (Universiteit Antwerpen, Belgium). Since 2010 he has been doing research, in collaboration with Peter Kravanja, on the interplay between conceptual metaphors, image schemas and cinema. The results have been published in Image [&] Narrative, Projections, Alphaville, and Metaphor and the Social World. They have also edited the special issue “Metaphor, Bodily Meaning, and Cinema” of the journal Image [&] Narrative. He is currently preparing a PhD in film studies at the Universiteit Antwerpen.

Adriano D’Aloia, PhD in Communication Studies, is Research Fellow in the Department of Communication and Performing Arts at the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan. He is the author of La vertigine e il volo. L’esperienza filmica fra estetica e neuroscienze cognitive (2013) and curator of I baffi di Charlot. Scritti italiani sul cinema 1932-1938 (2009) – the collection of Rudolf Arnheim’s Italian writings on cinema. His essays and articles are featured in Bianco e Nero, Cinema: Journal of Philosophy and the Moving Image, Cinéma&Cie, Fata Morgana, Film-Philosophy, Iluminace, Necsus and montage a-v.

Ruggero Eugeni is Full Professor of Media Semiotics at the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan. His research focuses on the living media experience, as defined both in cultural and in phenomenological-neurocognitive terms. From this point of view, he is currently preparing a book on cinema and hypnotism. His most recent work is Semiotica dei media. Le forme dell’esperienza (2010). He is also author of Analisi semiotica dell’immagine. Pittura, illustrazione, fotografia (2004), La relazione d’incanto. Studi su cinema e ipnosi (2002), Film, sapere, società. Per un’analisi sociosemiotica del testo cinematografico (1999). He serves as Director of ALMED – Postgraduate School in Media, Communication and Performing Arts at the Università Cattolica. Papers and preprints in English are available at http://www.ruggeroeugeni.com.

Mauri Kaipainen is Professor of media technology at Södertörn University. He studied education, musicology and cognitive science at the University of Helsinki and earned his PhD in 1994 on a systemic model of music cognition. His current research agenda focuses on the concept of interactive explorability of perspectives to multi-perspective media.

Peter Kravanja is a Research Fellow at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium), Faculty of Arts, research unit Literature and Culture. He holds an MS and a PhD in Mathematical Engineering and Computer Science (KU Leuven, Belgium), an MA in Cinema Studies (Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle – Paris 3, France) and a BA in Philosophy (KU Leuven, Belgium). Since 2010 he has been collaborating with Maarten Coëgnarts to investigate the interplay between conceptual metaphors, image schemas and cinema. The results have been published in Image [&] Narrative, Projections: The Journal for Movies and Mind, Alphaville: Journal of Film and Screen Media, and Metaphor and the Social World. They have also edited the special issue Metaphor, Bodily Meaning, and Cinema of the journal Image [&] Narrative. Website: http://www.kravanja.eu.

Vittorio Gallese, MD and trained neurologist, is Professor of Physiology at the Dept. of Neuroscience of the Università degli Studi di Parma where he is Coordinator of the PhD Program in Neuroscience and Director of the Doctoral School of Medicine. Cognitive neuroscientist, his research focuses on an embodied account of social cognition. His major contribution is the discovery, together with his colleagues of Parma, of mirror neurons and the elaboration of a theoretical model of social cognition – Embodied Simulation Theory. His scientific activity is testified by more than 200 scientific publications in peer-reviewed international scientific journals and edited books. He received the Grawemeyer Award for Psychology in 2007, the Doctor Honoris Causa from the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in 2010, and the Arnold Pfeffer Prize for Neuropsychoanalysis in 2010.

Livia Giunti obtained her PhD in Visual Arts and Film Studies from the Università degli Studi di Pisa, Italy. Her PhD thesis abstract was published in Cinéma & Cie, issue no. 21. Since 2013 she has been an academic tutor for the ICoN – Italian Culture on the Net consortium. She is also a producer and a documentary maker and has taught several professional courses on documentary film history and practices. She has published articles on documentary cinema, film analysis, and new media. Since 2012, she has served as the president of the Tuscan Association of Documentary Makers, and since 2014 has been one of the founding members and coordinators of Quaderno del Cinemareale, the first Italian magazine dedicated to documentary films. She currently holds a scholarship from the Università di Pisa to produce short films about research activities at the university.

Michele Guerra is Assistant Professor at the Università degli Studi di Parma, where he teaches History of American Cinema. Among his books, both as author and editor: Il meccanismo indifferente. La concezione della Storia nel cinema di Stanley Kubrick (2007), Sequenze. Quaderni di cinema 1949-1951 (2009), Gli ultimi fuochi. Cinema italiano e mondo contadino dal fascismo agli anni Settanta (2010), Le immagini tradotte. Usi Passaggi Trasformazioni (2011), and the Italian edition of Victor Oscar Freeburg’s The Art of Photoplay Making (2013). His research also focuses on the relationship between cinema and cognitive neuroscience, and in 2011 he has been the recipient of a fellowship from the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University. He is the editor of the cinema and communication collection “Pandora”.

Christian Gosvig Olesen is a PhD candidate at the Universiteit van Amsterdam’s Institute for Culture and History. His research project with the working title Film History in the Making: Digital Archives and Film Historiography commenced in the fall of 2012 under the supervision of Professor of Heritage and Digital Culture Julia Noordegraaf. Christian Gosvig Olesen has studied film history and theory at the Universities of Copenhagen and Bologna and holds an MA in Preservation and Presentation of the Moving Image from the University of Amsterdam.

Patricia Pisters is Professor of Film studies at the Department of Media Studies of the Universiteit van Amsterdam. She is one of the founding editors of Necsus: European Journal of Media Studies. She is programme director of the research group Neuraesthetics and Neurocultures and co-director (with Josef Fruchtl) of the research group Film and Philosophy at ASCA (Amsterdam School of Cultural Analysis). Publications include The Matrix of Visual Culture: Working with Deleuze in Film Theory (2003) and Mind the Screen (ed. with Jaap Kooijman and Wanda Strauven, 2008). Her latest book is The Neuro-Image: A Deleuzian Film-Philosophy of Digital Screen Culture (2012). See also her website at http://www.patriciapisters.com.

Francesco Pitassio is Associate Professor at the Università degli Studi di Udine, and currently Fulbright Distinguished Lecturer at the University of Notre Dame. He is one of the editors of NECSUS. European Journal of Media Studies. Among his research interests are film acting and stardom, silent film, European film, Italian film history. His books are Ombre silenziose. Teoria dell’attore cinematografico negli anni Venti (2002), Maschere e marionette (2002) and Attore/Divo (2003), Il neorealismo cinematografico, with Paolo Noto (2010).

Maria Poulaki is Lecturer in Film and Digital Media at the University of Surrey. She has an interdisciplinary background in Psychology and Media Studies, with a focus on cinema. Her current research interests are in cognitive film theory and complex systems theory and its applications to the study of audiovisual media.

Pia Tikka, PhD, filmmaker, has directed features Daughters of Yemanjá (Brazil-Finland 1996), Sand Bride (Finland 1998), and worked in international film productions. The author of Enactive Cinema: Simulatorium Eisensteinense (2008), Enactive Cinema project Obsession (2005) awarded with Möbius Prix Nordic prize, and co-author of interactive film-game Third Woman exhibited in Galapagos Art Space, NY (2011), she is also a founding member of research project Enactive Media (2009-2011), Aalto University Finland. Currently, Tikka is affiliated in the research project aivoAALTO. Her research team NeuroCine combines filmmaking practice with the methods of neuroimaging in order to study neural basis of cinematic imagination and filmmaker’s expertise.

Temenuga Trifonova is Associate Professor of Film Studies at York University in Toronto. She is the author of The Image in French Philosophy (2007), European Film Theory (2008), Warped Minds: Cinema and Psychopathology (2014) and numerous scholarly articles. Her first feature film, Man of Glass (2012), won the Cinematic Vision Award at the 2013 Amsterdam Film Festival and was screened at the 2013 Deboshir International Festival of Independent Cinema in St. Petersburg, Russia.

ISSUE 21 | Fall 2013

Regards croisés sur la société Pathé Frères

Edited by / Sous la direction de André Gaudreault, Laurent Le Forestier

Cover21


CONTENTS / TABLE DES MATIÈRES | ABSTRACTS | CONTRIBUTORS / COLLABORATEURS

  • Introduction
    André Gaudreault, Laurent Le Forestier

  • Les tableaux animés de la production Pathé
    Valentine Robert

  • Du comique dans les catalogues Pathé : littérarité et intermedialité dans les résumés de films
    Sarah Gely, Jérémy Houillère

  • Cambriolage moderne. Pathé, la troupe des Price et la tradition de la pantomime anglaise
    Stéphane Tralongo

  • Portraits de la Hollande
    Frank Kessler

  • Camera Distance and Max Linder at Pathé-Frères
    Charles O’Brien

  • Le regard attractionnel : entre opacité du médium et immersion du spectateur
    Hubert Sabino-Brunette, Dolorès Parenteau-Rodriguez

  • Le montage alterné chez Pathé : coupe d’ordre actoriel et coupe d’ordre narratoriel
    André Gaudreault, Philippe Gauthier

  • Filmer le théâtre comme un sujet de cinéma : le point de vue du spectateur dans Max joue le drame (Pathé 1914)
    Sophie Rabouh

  • Pathé et l’institutionnalisation du cinéma
    Lénaïg Le Faou, Laurent Le Forestier

  • Les relations entre Pathé et Méliès : aux sources du cinéma industriel et du cinéma indépendant (1908-1913)
    Jean-Pierre Sirois-Trahan

NEW STUDIES

  • Dear Photograph: Online Pictures and Traces of the Past
    Maria Buratti

  • « Protéger sans censurer » : la politique de classement des films de sexploitation au Québec
    Laurent Jullier

PROJECTS & ABSTRACTS

REVIEWS / COMPTES-RENDUS


ABSTRACTS |  CONTRIBUTORS / COLLABORATEURS | CONTENTS / TABLE DES MATIÈRES

Les tableaux animés de la production Pathé
Valentine Robert

In this essay, the author discovers an intriguing anomaly in Pathé’s early catalogues – the presence and yet absence of “tableaux vivants.” From 1897 until 1907, Pathé Frères produced no fewer than about fifty films consisting in realizations of famous paintings. Although numerous and impressive, these living pictures set on screen and in motion are unmentioned in the promotional documents of the period. In the Pathé catalogues, these “re-animated paintings” do not have their own category; instead, they are scattered throughout other “genres” of film. Pathé’s description of them also changes over time – the pictorial references seem to disappear. This growing silence may be a result of the legal climate of the time, shaken by the first copyright complaints in the film and phonograph industries. Or, it may be related to the way realistic and historical paintings of that time were taken for accurate documents and not for an artist’s vision. But, it may also be the new “era of reproductive technology” that freed works (intended to be reinterpreted through all media) from any “original” identity. In any event, this “secret” seems to hold the key to Pathé Frères’ early success: a cinema production conceived as a cinema of reproduction.

Du comique dans les catalogues Pathé : littérarité et intermedialité dans les résumés de films
Sarah Gely, Jérémy Houillère

This essay deals with the summaries of comic films in Pathé catalogues between 1906 and 1914. We try to understand the literary bases of these summaries. Before 1910, summaries had several literary characteristics, but still remained essentially commercial discourses. Then, after 1910, we see changes that bring them closer to literary discourse. The texts are longer, characters have names and the narrative has a beginning, middle and end. In this sense they are close to the short comic texts published in the satirical press. Through this link, it seems clear that the literary discourses in Pathé catalogues and satirical press are based on the same process: the reader of abstracts is constantly led to identify with the subjectivity of the narrator. The pleasant and entertaining nature of the film summaries seems to come from the subtle blend of the stylistic requirements of the literary text and the identification with the narrator. In the end, it appears that the transformation that occurs during the passage of the filmic text to the literary text, and thereby from the film medium to the literary medium, is not  accompanied by a generic transformation. The comic form of the film-object is also found in the summary-object.

Cambriolage moderne. Pathé, la troupe des Price et la tradition de la pantomime anglaise
Stéphane Tralongo

In 1908, Pathé Frères faced several charges of plagiarism. Three Pathé films looked so similar to successful recent plays that some spectators easily recognized the original dramatic works. While questions concerning “adaptation” and “narrative” were central to the trial that resulted from a lawsuit brought by dramatic authors, the testimony also includes discussion of many aspects of “mise en scène,” specifically about the Pathé film Cambrioleurs modernes (1907). The whole of Cambrioleurs modernes seems to have been based on the pantomime which the famous acrobat James Price (who worked on the film) had performed in Le Papa de Francine at the Théâtre Cluny in 1896. In Paris, Price had staged many “pantomimes anglaises” like this one in the style of the Hanlon-Lees, though some of them were also parts of musical plays protected by copyright after their publication. The trial that resulted from Pathé’s infringement of one such copyright thus provides rare and detailed insight into the processes by which early film studios reproduced spectacular performances by some of the most renowned stage artists.

Portraits de la Hollande
Frank Kessler

This article discusses a corpus of travelogues filmed by Pathé Frères in the Netherlands between 1909 and 1914. According to the catalogue descriptions, these films mainly present views of rural areas, concentrating on the region around the Zuiderzee, in particular the village of Volendam and the island of Marken, both very important places for tourism at that time. The catalogue descriptions continuously refer to the picturesque qualities of the views and highlight the emblematic aspects of the country: windmills, canals, cheese, local costumes and folkloristic dances. Almost all of the films avoid showing the modern side of the Netherlands, and, except Rotterdam and Alkmaar, no cities are shown. Holland thus appears as a “timescape,” a place situated not only geographically, but also idealistically in an indefinite past. Two surviving prints reveal interesting formal features such as editing patterns and close framings that are extremely rare in fictional films from the same period. Each one follows a different logic: while Comment se fait le fromage de Hollande depicts the different stages of the cheese production process, Coiffures et types de Hollande functions like an album of moving photographs, showing women’s heads and their traditional attire. Both however clearly privilege the picturesque.

Camera Distance and Max Linder at Pathé-Frères
Charles O’Brien

This article surveys staging practices in a sample of films from Pathé-Frères featuring the comedian Max Linder. The examination concerns the distance between camera and actor, and particularly the tendency in cinema by 1910 to reduce the distance in ways that enable the naturalism of actors’ performances. This tendency, which was a transnational development involving the main production companies in Europe and the U.S. at around the same time, is approached through a comparative framework, with a focus on similarities between staging in the Linder films (Pathé-Frères) and in the films directed contemporaneously by D.W. Griffith (Biograph). The analysis employs statistical methods in combination with conventional practices of film-historical research to show that Linder’s films devoted more running time to shots featuring a reduced camera distance than Griffith’s, and that the difference can be explained with reference to Linder’s persona as a comic performer.

Le regard attractionnel : entre opacité du médium et immersion du spectateur
Hubert Sabino-Brunette, Dolorès Parenteau-Rodriguez

In a context in which film attraction tends to co-exist with narration, this article examines how filming in natural settings puts into question the singular and characteristic “method” of the Pathé firm. The authors analyse the transition between studio shooting and outdoor sets by focusing on three animated views and their descriptions in Pathé’s catalogues which suggest a hybridization of “scènes en plein air” and “scènes comiques:” Odyssée d’un paysan à Paris (1905), Aux bains de mer (1906) and Les Alpes par le télescope (1906). This article suggests that the transformation of shooting modalities invites reflection on the involvement and nature of the spectator’s gaze; simultaneously spectators in a cinema as well as background actors/spectators of the film. This demonstration will be accomplished by way of the disjunction between the catalogue descriptions and the views themselves; it will be argued that these major differences direct the spectator’s reading of the view, raising the implications of the transition for the spectator.

Le montage alterné chez Pathé : coupe d’ordre actoriel et coupe d’ordre narratoriel
André Gaudreault, Philippe Gauthier

In the first decade of the twentieth century Pathé presented itself as a kind of film “laboratory” where several forms of editing were developed, in particular crosscutting, wherein segments of actions taking place concurrently and simultaneously within the same narrative were woven together. In order to fully understand the emergence of this major film technique, the authors of this article analyse editing in films in which a character looks through a keyhole or viewing device. While the systematic alternation of viewpoints (between those seeing and those seen) in an A-B-A-B manner is one of the forms of this discursive configuration, one of alternation, this does not make it an example of crosscutting. Alternation between those seeing and those seen is basically motivated by the acting: the film shows us an object in order to follow through on an actor’s view of that object. As the authors demonstrate, crosscutting exists only when the cuts are independent of the contingencies of the action depicted – when the connection between the two actions is entirely and exclusively carried out and motivated by the “narrator” alone (by which is meant the mega-narrator).

Filmer le théâtre comme un sujet de cinéma : le point de vue du spectateur dans Max joue le drame (Pathé 1914)
Sophie Rabouh

The principal interest of the Pathé comic film Max joue le drame (Max Plays at Drama, 1914) lies in the direct way it confronts theatre and cinema in the early years of the 20th century. In the film, Max gives a theatrical performance on a private stage to his friends. A distinction between the diegetic point of view of the theatre spectators and that of the film viewers is clearly established. By making techniques of distancing (in time and space), shifting and contrast (specific to the comic genre) its subject, the theatre is reshaped in various ways and takes on a whole new aspect. This re-appropriation of the theatre by cinema is run through dynamically by a vector, Max Linder, whose central action and interaction with the theatre cast as a subject creates a point of view for the film viewer that is both inside and outside the film and in this way is truly cinematic. It thus becomes possible to propose the hypothesis that Pathé was contributing indirectly to the development of cinema as an institution by encouraging, through a mode of production which privileges characters typical of the cinema, the emergence of new points of view for the viewer.

Pathé et l’institutionnalisation du cinéma
Lénaïg Le Faou, Laurent Le Forestier

While it is possible to define one aspect of cinema’s institutionalisation during the first twenty years of French film as the process of normalising quality in a more or less consensual and lasting manner, this article seeks to show, through the case of Pathé and its role in this institutionalisation, that the quality at issue was cinematic and not simply filmic. Employing a vast collection of sources taken from the press of the day, this study offers a typology of different forms of quality in cinema as they were seen at the time of this initial phase in the institutionalisation process.

Les relations entre Pathé et Méliès : aux sources du cinéma industriel et du cinéma indépendant (1908-1913)
Jean-Pierre Sirois-Trahan

In this article, the author attempts an archaeology of the conflicts between the industrial cinema and independent cinema models in the period between1908-13. He focuses in particular on the figures Charles Pathé and Georges Méliès and of the firms Pathé Frères and Star Film respectively. The common preconception that Méliès’ fall was due to his having been overtaken aesthetically will be examined. The author will instead seek the reason amongst economic factors and the pitched battle between film production companies (Pathé Frères and Star Film, but also Gaumont, Edison and the others) for control of the nascent market. Questions around the Edison trust, over production and film rentals will be addressed, in addition to Star Film’s activities in the United States with Gaston Méliès. The little-known partnership that Pathé offered Méliès in 1911-13 presents an opportunity to address a final model: that of the independent filmmaker in the very heart of the industry.

NEW STUDIES

Dear Photograph: Online Pictures and Traces of the Past
Maria Buratti

By analyzing the photographic archive of Dear Photograph (dearphotograph.com) – a website that intends to use pictures of the past as traces of personal memories – this article will focus on the relationship between memory and photography in the digital age, and on the value attributed to the sharing of private snapshots on the Web. I will analyze the images chosen by the participants to portray their own past, underlining both old and new uses of photographs, and pictures will be read together with their captions, as a unique “imagetext”. Even if images seem to play a crucial role in memory’s representation, their relationship with their verbal explanations reveals some crucial aspects of the sharing of private photographs on the Web. Captions make family pictures “readable” also for an extraneous observer and distinguish similar photographs one from another: while enlarging the intimate context that characterizes the reading of family pictures, the Web amplifies the properties of analogue photography, which ratifies the belonging of an individual to a group, and transforms personal recollections into a shared (and sharable) memory.

« Protéger sans censurer » : la politique de classement des films de sexploitation au Québec
Laurent Jullier

This article tries to address the following questions: which national apparatuses, cultural forces and social institutions have made a move to oppose the proliferation of pornography? What are, on a national level, the policies of the single nation-states towards it? The title of the article comes from the official statements of the Government of Québec, through its Régie du cinéma: “Since the mid 1960s, censorship is no longer practised in Québec. […] However, when the Régie believes that a film presents a real danger to the public good, especially in terms of obscenity, it reserves the right to refuse classification. In such cases, the showing, sale and rental of the film are prohibited.” The question is: when does obscenity cause a “real danger to the public good”? The Government asserts that it happens with films involving “non-fictional violence, cruelty and dehumanization of the protagonists.” Interestingly, the complete official statements use theoretical tools that seem to be taken from André Bazin’s theories, namely the concepts of “photographic evidence” and “film ontology,” to address this issues. Starting from this use of these notions by the Régie du cinema, the author will investigate the ontological argument applied to pornography, using an interdisciplinary approach: ethics of care, history of film techniques, and analytical philosophy.


CONTRIBUTORS / COLLABORATEURS | ABSTRACTS | CONTENTS / TABLE DES MATIÈRES

André Gaudreault is a full professor in the Département d’histoire de l’art et d’études cinématographiques at the Université de Montréal, where since 1992 he has served as director of the Groupe de recherche sur l’avènement et la formation des institutions cinématographique et scénique (GRAFICS). His books include Film and Attraction: From Kinematography to Cinema (2011 [2008]) and The Blackwell Companion to Early Cinema (co-editor, 2012). He is also the author, with Philippe Marion, of La fin du cinéma? Un média en crise à l’ère du numérique (2013). In 2013 he received a Guggenheim Fellowship.

Philippe Gauthier is a post-doctoral researcher at Harvard University. His current research project is a comparative study of the impact on film studies of the emergence of television and digital technologies. He had the honour of receiving three awards for his doctoral work on film historiography: the Domitor Graduate Student Writing Award in 2008, the Film Studies Association of Canada (FSAC) Student Writing Award for Outstanding Ability in Film and Media Scholarship in 2011 and the FSAC Gerald Pratley Award for Innovative Research in Canadian Cinema Studies in 2012. He has been the secretary of Domitor since 2012.

Sarah Gely holds a master’s degree in French Language and Literature from Université Rennes 2 (France). This is her first publication in a scholarly volume. She is one of the founding members of L’Effeuillée, a cultural and cross-disciplinary magazine published by Université Rennes 2 since 2010.

Jérémy Houillère is a Ph.D. candidate in the Film Studies program at the Université de Montréal (Canada) and Université Rennes 2 (France). His research interests include the history of cinema (particularly the period between 1906-1914), comedy in cinema and television and the relations between cinema and the illustrated press. He has recently published articles on the TV shows The Office and The Wire. He has presented conference papers on early French comic movies and screwball comedy. He also teaches film analysis and film history.

Frank Kessler is a professor of media history at Utrecht University and currently the Director of Utrecht University’s Research Institute for Cultural Inquiry (ICON). His main research interests lie in the field of early cinema and the history of film theory. He is a co-founder and co-editor of KINtop: Jahrbuch zur Erforschung des frühen Films and the KINtop-Schriften series. From 2003 to 2007 he was the president of DOMITOR, an international association to promote research on early cinema. Together with Nanna Verhoeff he edited Networks of Entertainment: Early Film Distribution 1895-1915 (John Libbey, 2007).

Lénaïg Le Faou is a Ph.D. student in film studies at the Université de Montréal and Université Rennes 2. She works on discourses around cinema in the French press between 1895 and 1908. She is also interested in the historiography of cinema and has published an article on this subject in issue 70 of 1895 (“Conceiving early cinema in the 1940s and 1950s: the study of ‘origins’”). As a research assistant at GRAFICS, she participated in a collaborative research project entitled “From fragmentation to assemblage: editing during the cinematography-attraction period.”

Laurent Le Forestier is a professor of film studies at Université Rennes 2, where he is director of the film research laboratory. He is the author of numerous articles and books on early cinema and on discourses on cinema in France in the post-war period. His recent publications include Filmer l’artiste au travail (PUR, 2013, co-edited with Gilles Mouëllic); “Histoire des métiers du cinéma avant 1945,” 1895 Revue d’histoire du cinéma 65, Winter 2011 (co-edited with Priska Morrissey); and “Des procédures historiographiques en cinéma,” Cinémas 21, nos. 2-3, Spring 2011 (special issue editor).

Charles O’Brien is an associate professor of film studies at Carleton University. He is the author of Cinema’s Conversion to Sound (2005) and of articles and book chapters on film history and historiography. He is currently completing a book entitled Transatlantic Style: Movies, Songs, and Electric Sound.

Dolorès Parenteau-Rodriguez is a master’s student in film studies at the Université de Montréal. She worked as a GRAFICS research assistant for the project “From fragmentation to assemblage: editing during the cinematography-attraction period.” Her current work focuses on the use of cinema in performance video/ video performances as well as the critical relationship between works of art and history, society and politics. In 2012, she published an article entitled “Da ist eine kriminelle Behrürung in der Kunst: perspectives critiques sur le paysage culturel et la modernité” in EuroStudia.

Sophie Rabouh is writing a doctoral dissertation in a joint program at the Université de Montréal and Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne on the involvement and role of the viewer’s body in the emergence and creation of cinema as a social system at the moment of modernity and early cinema.

Valentine Robert is a lecturer at the Université de Lausanne. Her Ph.D. dissertation studies tableaux vivants in early cinema (ongoing, supervised by François Albera, approved by the Swiss National Science Foundation in affiliation with GRAFICS). She has examined the interplay between painted/theatrical/projected and cinematic tableaux in more than twenty essays. These include studies of the cinematic realization of paintings such as the work of Gustave Doré, DaVinci’s Last Supper and Christ’s iconography. She also specializes in early cinema Passion Plays and is the co-editor Le Film sur l’Art : entre histoire de l’art et documentaire de création.

Hubert Sabino-Brunette is an instructor and Ph.D. student in film studies at the Université de Montréal, as well as a research assistant with GRAFICS and with the Penser l’histoire de la vie culturelle (PHVC) research group, affiliated with the CRILCQ. He has written articles on Quebec film critics and dubbing. For his master’s thesis, he analyzed Quebec’s cinema reception in the principal film magazines published in Quebec between 1960 and 1978. His doctoral dissertation will discuss film critics in the Montreal press in the 1920s and 1930s.

Jean-Pierre Sirois-Trahan is a film studies professor in the Département des littératures at Université Laval and director of the scholarly journal Nouvelles Vues. With Sophie-Jan Arrien he co-edited the volume Le Montage des identités (PUL, 2008). He recently co-edited an issue of Cinémas on sound theory (Fall 2013). A film theorist and historian, he is a specialist of early cinema and currently working on cinema’s intermediality, rock music, Québec cinema, and the cinema of Georges Méliès, whose autobiography he has recently edited: La Vie et l’Oeuvre d’un pionnier du cinéma (Éditions du Sonneur, 2012).

Stéphane Tralongo is Premier assistant in the film history and aesthetics section at the Université de Lausanne, where he conducts post-doctoral research. He received his Ph.D. in Lettres et arts/Études cinématographiques from Université Lyon 2 and the Université de Montréal in 2012. His work focuses on the relations between early film and stage practices at the turn of the 20th century.

ISSUE 20 | Spring 2013

The Geopolitics of Cinema and the Study of Film

CC20


CONTENTS / TABLE DES MATIÈRES

  • Preface
    Tim Bergfelder
  • Is cinema contagious? Transnationalism and the case of Korea
    Dudley Andrew
  • Traveling styles: or the challenge of approaching commercial Hindi cinema as world cinema
    Alexandra Schneider
  • De-locating “Independence:” the discourse on Southeast Asian Indipendent Cinema and its trajectories
    Nathalie Boheler
  • Transnational subjects in a multiple Europe: Auf der anderen Seite and Almanya: Wilkommen in Deutschland
    Ilaria De Pascalis
  • Peripheral realism: the regional and transnational dynamic of contemporary Brazilian cinema
    Angela Prysthon
  • Moving picture and people across the U.S.-Mexico Border: the critical reception of Sin nombre and The three burials of Melquiades Estrada
    Valerio Coladonato
  • Concept-cognitive mapping: third cinema as cartography of Global Capitalism
    Jakob Nilsson
  • The rhetoric and aesthetics of world cinema: film studies as a place for the “Persistence of Geography” in contemporary cinema
    Giorgio Avezzù
  • Luckàcs, précurseur d’une esthétique géopolitique? Le concept de totalité au service du cinéma postcolonial
    Delphine Wehrli

NEW STUDIES

  • Extended cinema: the performative power of cinema in Installation practices
    Cosetta G. Saba
  • The Cinematic Performance of the Real: Aesthetics, New Realism and Cinema
    Luca Taddio

no. 19 | Fall 2012

c19
European TV series / Séries TV Européennes

Edited by / Sous la direction de Alice Autelitano, Veronica Innocenti

Cover | Contents


no. 18 | Fall 2012

c18
Nothing is more practical than a good theory. Genette goes to the movies / Rien n’est plus pratique qu’une bonne théorie. Genette va au cinéma

Edited by / Sous la direction de Valentina Re

Cover Contents


no. 16-17 | Spring-Fall 2011


Revisiting the archive / Revisiter l’archive

Edited by / Sous la direction de Simone Venturini

Cover | Contents


no. 14-15 | Spring-Fall 2010


Animer et ré-animer les images / cinéma, animation et bande dessinée the animation and re-animation of images / cinema, animation and comics

Edited by / Sous la direction de Pierre Chemartin, Stefania Giovenco

Cover  |  Contents


no. 13 | Fall 2009


Le film pluriel

Edited by / Sous la direction de Marie Frappat, Michel Marie

Cover  |  Contents


no. 12 | Spring 2009


Cinéma et art contemporain III / Cinema and contemporary visual arts III

Edited by / Sous la direction de Philippe Dubois

Cover  |  Contents


no. 11 | Fall 2008


Relocation

Edited by / Sous la direction de Francesco Casetti

Cover  |  Contents


no. 10 | Spring 2008


Cinéma et art contemporain II / Cinema and contemporary visual arts II

Edited by / Sous la direction de Philippe Dubois

Cover  |  Contents


no. 9 | Fall 2007


Configurations de l’alternance / Configuring alternation

Edited by / Sous la direction de Nicolas Dulac, Bernard Perron

Cover  |  Contents


no. 8 | November 2006


Cinema and contemporary visual arts

Edited by / Sous la direction de Philippe Dubois


Read more


no. 7 | October 2005


Multiple and multiple-language versions III

Edited by / Sous la direction de Francesco Pitassio, Leonardo Quaresima


Read more


no. 6 | January 2005


Multiple and multiple-language versions II / Versions multiples II

Edited by / Sous la direction de Hans-Michael Bock, Simone Venturini

       
Full Issue  |  Read more


no. 5 | October 2004


Transitions

Edited by / Sous la direction de Francesco Casetti, Mariagrazia Fanchi

       
Full Issue  |  Read more


no. 4 | March 2004


Multiple and multiple-language versions / Versions multiples

Edited by / Sous la direction de Nataša Ďurovičová

       
Full Issue  | 
Read more


no. 3 | March 2003


Early cinema, technology, discourse / cinéma des premiers temps, technologie, discours

Edited by / Sous la direction de Rosanna Maule

      
Full Issue  |  Read more


no. 2 | January 2003

Dead ends / Impasses

Edited by / Sous la direction de Leonardo Quaresima

      
Full Issue  |  Read more


no. 1 | January 2001


Where next? Par où continuer?

Edited by / Sous la direction de François Jost

       
Full Issue  |  Read more

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